Your home's first barriers against harsh weather are the roof and gutters. That's why it's important to keep them in tip-top shape. If shingles are frayed or damaged, they should be replaced. If they aren't well maintained, the consequences can be costly. Damaged shingles allow water to enter your roof system and damage your home. Take a look at your shingles and see if the granules on the shingles have been washed away. If they have, you'll need to replace those shingles; in fact, it's probably time to replace the entire roof. Here are some pointers to help you get the most life out of your roof. Promptly replace damaged shingles. Do not walk on the roof, especially during hot summer months. Trim trees to prevent scuffing of the roof shingles by branches. Be careful not to puncture the roofing material when installing accessories. Check gutters and downspouts for free flow. After heavy storms, check to see drains continued to flow properly. Look for signs of hail damage. Check valleys annually. Look for torn, worn out or lifted parts.Maintain adequate ventilation in the attic area. Poor attic ventilation can cause severe damage.Be alert to ice dams which can form over the gutters and on the eaves. Common Roofing Terms Asphalt - a petroleum based waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacture that protects from the sun's UV rays. Bundle - the roofing term for a package of shingles.There are usually three to five bundles per square. Built-up Roof - A roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets. Class "A" - The highest fire-resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Indicates roofing is able to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building. This usually lasts over forty years. Class "B" - Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand moderate exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building. Class "C" - Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing materials are able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building. Coverage - Coverage is the amount of weather protection by overlapping shingles. Cricket - This is the peaked diverter by the chimney to deflect water. Diverter - Used to direct water away from an area. Dormer - A Window projecting from a sloping roof. Drip edge - Metal sheaves fastened to the edges of the roof that prevent water from seeping through the roof and cause the water to drip off. Eaves - The overhang at the bottom of the roof. Fascia - A board generally behind gutter. Felt - Fibrous material saturated with asphalt used as an underlayment or sheathing paper. Flashing - Metal used to seal around roofing penetrations preventing water damage. Gable - The upper part of a side wall.
Gable roof - A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge. Contains a gable at each end. Gutter - Used to control roof drainage. Hip - The vertical ridgeline. Hip roof - A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. This roof has no gables. Laminated Shingles - These shingles have more than one layer of tabs to create extra thickness. They are often referred to as three-dimensional or architectural shingles because they create visual depth on a roof and impart a custom look. Mansard Roof - A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. This roof has no gables. Nosing - Used on the perimeter at eaves & gable ends. Interlocking Shingles - Individual shingles that fasten together mechanically and provide greater wind resistance. Pipe Jacks – Heating & plumbing flashings for penetrations. Pitch or Slope – Describes how steep the roof is. Re-roofing - The practice of removing an existing roofing system and replacing it with a new roofing system. Ridge - The roof's peak. Roof Vent - This vent lets humidity escape from the attic. Saturated Felt - This asphalt-impregnated, organic-based felt is used as an underlayment between the roof deck and the roofing material. Saturated felt is produced in a variety of weights. Sheathing - Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material. Soffit - The finished underside of the eaves. Span - The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves. Square - Roofing is estimated and sold by the square, a 10’ by 10’ area, or 100 square feet, is one square of roof. Stack - Exhaust flue pipe generally for stoves. Tar Paper - (See Underlayment) Three-dimensional Shingles (See laminated shingles.) Three-tab shingle - The most popular type of asphalt shingle usually 12" x 36" in size with three tabs. Underlayment - The felt or base sheet underneath a roof. Valley – Where two roof planes come together. Vapor Barrier - (See Vapor Retarder) Vapor Retarder - Any material used to prevent the passage of water vapor.